Rabbi Akiva says a person is liable for violating the Torah prohibition of carrying on Shabbat if he throws an object from one balcony (private domain) to another balcony (private domain) over the street (public domain). The Rabbis exempt. What is between them? Something that comes within three handbreadths of the ground is considered attached to the ground (lavud). Source could be the gap a goat could squeeze through, but it’s actually a definition received by Moses at Sinai – one of the original oral laws. Connection to the walls of a sukkah. Intentionality and throwing is counter-intuitive. Short distance included in a longer distance makes some sense, but rabbis exempt a person who intended to throw an object four cubits in the public domain and ended up throwing eight cubits. If he realized his intention, he’d be liable. He ended up throwing even further. Why is he exempt?