Torah verses contained in tefillin may be written on bird skin, despite the “holes” from which feathers were plucked. May we write them on fish skin? We won’t know until Elijah comes. Shmuel sent Karna to test Rav when the latter first arrived in Bavel. Rav asnwered all Karna’s questions, but didn’t appreciate being tested. Shmuel, who was a doctor, treated Rav’s stomach condition without telling him that’s what he was doing, and Rav became very uncomfortable. In his pain, he cursed Shmuel that he should have no male children, and regretted it forever after. They became devoted colleagues and friends, co-leaders of the Jewish community in Bavel for many years. Though tefillin scrolls must be written on the skin of a kosher animal, the animal need not be slaughtered in a kosher manner for this use. Boethusians were like Sadducees. Mishna 2 of Chapter 14: we do not make brine on Shabbos, but we may make a little salt water for a bread-dip. Differences between brine and salt water explored.